Introduction- As described in Technical Note KRI-01, an Ion-Beam from a broad-beam industrial source must be neutralized. This is done by emitting electrons from a neutralizer. A hot-filament, plasma-bridge, or hollow-cathode type of neutralizer may be used. The ion source in Fig. 1 could be either gridded or gridless. For a gridless source, the neutralizer is a called a cathode-neutralizer. The target can be a sputter target or a substrate being etched. Connected to a voltmeter in Fig. 1, it serves as a neutralization probe.